DARK MATTER, DARK ENERGY AND THE EXPANDING UNIVERSE….

The observation that the ‘universe is expanding’ was a normal phenomenon in physics and astronomy until it was governed by Newton’s law of gravitation. But, when observations revealed to us the fact that the universe is not only expanding, but also accelerating, it created a new problem in physics and astronomy. The problem is that according to Newton’s laws, any object in motion in this universe will continue to move in constant rate forever unless it is stopped by an external force. But, the current observation is that this expansion of the universe is accelerating. That is, expansion is not occurring at the same rate. If the universe had expanded at a constant rate, it would have stopped at some point in its own energy. That is, expansion does not take place forever. But, this ‘acceleration’ made physics think that there is a force pushing the universe against gravity. That is, antigravity force exists in this universe. This antigravity is responsible for the expansion of the universe. This antigravity force is known as dark energy in physics.
Now let’s talk about black matter. This is also an observation about the universe. The observation that leads us to this idea is that we see and imagine our universe to be huge, but we don’t find that much matter. Because the amount of gravitational energy we get is far less than what would be needed to hold this massive universe together with all the visible matter (baryonic matter). That is, we cannot find the visible matter necessary for the vast volume of our visible universe whose gravity would hold it together. That is, there must be invisible matter in this universe that we cannot detect by electromagnetic waves, but we can perceive its gravity. This gravity is accumulated in the matter that is called dark matter in the language of physics. which is nonbariynic matter.
Now let’s discuss how this dark energy and dark matter is explained in physics and astronomy in the formation of the universe and the expansion of the universe.
Recently NASA released an explanation with an image, showing that there is a large amount of dark matter located around galaxies and galaxy clusters. As a result, this galaxy cluster made of visible matter and the dark matter accumulated in large quantities next to it, the gravity of the region is so strong that the dark energy is not able to break the galaxy cluster and move the stars away. As a result, galaxy clusters are moving away from each other at an increasing speed in the observed expanding universe. But, not a single galaxy is breaking. That is, in some regions of the universe baryonic and nonbaryonic matter together are making gravity so strong that the dark energy or antigravity is being defeated. That is, physics and astronomy give us the idea that the galaxy cluster-rich regions of the universe contain visible matter or baryonic matter and invisible matter or nonbaryonic matter and the rest of the space is filled with dark energy. Thus, the dark energy region of the universe contains no small number of stars and other visible matter and a small amount of invisible matter whose total gravitational force is insufficient to resist antigravity. Or, even if the universe joined a galaxy cluster at some point in its expansion. Thus, the role of dark energy in the formation of galaxy clusters in the expanding universe after the big bang is worth mentioning.
This time about the establishment of Hubble’s formula. Hubble’s law is influenced by gravitational lensing. So, we can say that antigravity must have an effect on Hubble’s law. That is, Hubble’s formula will be affected by dark energy. But, Hubble’s law is able to accurately measure the expanding universe without the effects of antigravity. Thus, the antigravity or dark energy hypothesis is not accurate to support an expanding universe. — — —Alternatively, attributing space bubbles to the expanding universe would have no effect on Hubble’s law. Here the volume of a space bubble will be equal to the finite volume of a region of the universe filled with dark energy, and the matter located within the space bubble will be dark matter. Now, according to the theory of the universe governed by space bubbles and gravitational field, as many space bubbles are formed every moment in this universe, the universe will expand in exchange for the gravitational field. There is no restriction to obtain this expansion acceleration speed. However, the dark matter inside the space bubble is not the matter whose job is to hold the universe together with its gravitational force. Which means, the matter inside the space bubble does not have the same gravitational force as dark matter. Only the gravitational force of visible matter is capable of holding the universe we see today. It does not require dark matter. In fact, gravitational lensing in the visible universe is occurring everywhere due to space bubbles. Because, space bubbles do not interact directly with the gravitational field. Hence, the space bubble-rich region or, more specifically, the matter within the gravitational field passing by each space bubble transmits its information to other gravitational matter. As a result, the light wave or photon particle is forced to change its trajectory for the space bubble. Which is actually gravitational lensing in physics terms. Thus, the spectrum of light from blue galaxies is the cause of the winds observed at our Earth observatories, the presence of space bubbles. Moreover, another noteworthy observation of ours is the cosmological principle. Which is a big question mark over our visible universe.Author: SUBRATA HALDER Original Text: THE LAWS FOR EXPLANATION OF THE BIOGRAPHY OF UNIVERSE (Copyright Govt. of India)
Registration Number:L-103345/2021 (IMAGE CREDITED: NASA)

--

--

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store